Daily Mains Answer Writing - PrayaasPrayaas – February 2019Prayaas – February 2019 – Week 4

Daily Answer Writing for IAS Mains Examination – PRAYAAS Series – Day 72

Q.How illegal transborder migration pose a threat to India’s security? Discuss the strategies to curb this, bringing out the factors which give impetus to such migration

          [Answer in 250 Words]                                                           


 State of Illegal Transborder Migration

  • India’s geostrategic location, its relatively sound economic position vis-à-vis its neighbours, and its liberal democratic credentials have long made it a magnet for people in other parts of the region who are fleeing persecution in their countries of origin or looking for a better life.
  • This has also emerged as a major national security concern, due to spurt in transborder illegal migration.


Threat to Indian Security

  • Migration influences demographic trends in border states leading to Identity politics, which negatively influences results of elections in several constituencies. Eg 32% constituencies in Assam are susceptible to it.
  • Issue of terrorism has also emerged as a major threat due to illegal migration. It is alleged that outside support to militant movements is provided through illegal migration. Several militants enter into India as migrants to carry terrorist activities.
  • Outsiders cause Identity crisis issue in the state, it leads to increased tensions with locals and trends of xenophobia. This culminates into community tensions and often clashes and protests.

Threat to Indian Security

  • Increased land pressure, depletion of forest wealth, undercutting of wages of unskilled jobs, displacement of native workers heavily strains India’s resources and leads to potential threat to India’s economic security
  • Insurgency ,Organized crime like drug trafficking, human trafficking are largely influenced by trends of illegal transborder migration where migrants act as mules and are often exploited by syndicate networks.

Connecting Line

  • Several Push and Pull factors can be cited for the migration trends in India.

Reasons for Illegal Migration

  • Unstable Neighborhood states : Such illegal migration is driven by internal strife, conflict and wars, persecution of certain communities/ethnicities, unstable governments, etc
  • Socio-Economic factors : Poverty and absence of employment avenues also forces illegal migration, in search of better prospects and standard of living in India. For example Bogus MGNREGA cards held by such migrants for daily wage earning in India.

Reasons for Illegal Migration


  • Apart from it, some other factors also influence illegal migration
  • Porous Borders : Long and porous borders lead to easy movement of migrants to Indian border states.
  • Terrorism : Militant activities also give impetus to such migration, where several militants posing as migrants cross borders to carry out their nefarious activities.

Connecting Line

  • By abovementioned discussion on various factors giving impetus to illegal migration, India needs to chalk about a comprehensive strategy by clearly outlining short term as well as long term plan to arrest the migration trends.

Strategies to curb Illegal Migration

  • To prevent the inflow of such immigrants, border fencing will have to be supplemented by vigorous patrolling and other measures including better communication, electronic surveillance, and identifying and taking effective action against agents who facilitate the movement of illegal immigrants and assist with their settlement in India.
  • National policy on refugees needs to be worked out so that refugees are clearly defined and can be distinguished from illegal immigrants. Furthermore forging a bilateral agreement between India and Bangladesh that provides for taking back nationals who stay illegally in the other country after due verification also needs to be carried forward
  • This should followed by concerted action to detect Bangladeshi immigrants, assign them to separate categories of refugees and illegal migrants, resettle or repatriate them, and prevent any further influx.

Strategies to curb Illegal Migration

  • Taking assistance and advisory services from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the International Organization for Migration (IOM), and other concerned international agencies with experience in this kind of complex issue can also be considered as an important strategy.
  • As a long-term strategy, the motivating factors behind this migration must also be addressed. Because the majority of these persons are economic migrants, a more lasting and effective solution could be through fostering economic development in Bangladesh, particularly along the border with India.


  • Given the stakes of India’s national security, it is imperative that India formulates a comprehensive short term as well as long term strategy to address the issue of transborder migration. Thus, internal security and administration apparatus needs to be strengthened alongwith continued efforts by India for a more stable and peaceful Indian subcontinent.

Related Articles